The Literacy Interventionists

The result of my own study of the question, What is the best gift which can be given to a community? is that a free library occupies the first place, provided the community will accept and maintain it as a public institution…

– Andrew Carnegie, The Gospel of Wealth

 

Andrew Carnegie’s philanthropy helped build the public library infrastructure of the United States. He insisted, however, that his money not pay for books. Carnegie expected each community to stock the shelves.

Todd Bol was similarly inspired. As his Washington Post obituary explains:

He had an abundance of books, a weathered garage door in need of repair and an abiding sadness that persisted months after the death of his mother, a schoolteacher … And so, in what he later described as “a spiritual gesture” to his late mother, June, Todd Bol set to work one day in 2009.

Since Carnegie had built 2,509 libraries, Mr. Bol aimed at topping that number by one. Today there are over 100,000:

There are now Little Free Libraries in all 50 states and in 88 countries, including Australia, Brazil, Ghana, Japan and the Netherlands. They stand inside Los Angeles police stations and at New York City subway stops, at prisons in Wisconsin and hospitals in Ireland, at a refu­gee camp in Uganda and a schoolyard in South Sudan. Inside each book exchange are about 20 to 100 volumes, an ever-rotating selection of self-help guides, romance novels, thrillers, how-to manuals, children’s books, cookbooks, magazines and whatever else a community decides to donate.

 

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A literacy interventionist works with students who need extra help reading and writing. Literacy intervention is what Gerard Benson did for society. His obituary in the Independent describes his efforts:

…the poet Gerard Benson was “discovered” in the Sixties as a member of The Barrow Poets, who performed everything from Shakespeare and Milton to limericks and risqué ballads everywhere – from the back rooms of pubs to BBC’s Late Night Line-Up, around the country and in Europe and the US.

The Barrow Poets had a top ten hit in Australia with a performance of this song. Their phonological awareness would impress any literacy interventionist.

Mr. Benson also helped introduce poetry to the daily commute: since 1986, passengers on the London Underground have been reading poems posted in subway cars. Public transportation systems all over the world now feature poetry.

The Unfortunates

 

In 1961, Vivian Nicholson worked in a licorice factory in England. Her husband was a miner. Between them, they made 9 pounds a week. After a series of lucky bets on soccer games, they won today’s equivalent of 4.5 million dollars.

Thus began, according to her New York Times obituary, “a cautionary fable worthy of Aesop: Mr. Nicholson was killed a few years later at the wheel of the powder-blue Jaguar he had bought with the prize money; Mrs. Nicholson wound up nearly destitute.”

Decades after winning the money – during which Mrs. Nicholson lost not only her fortune, but her friends, and subsequent husbands – she reflected back on the days before her big win:

Before that, Keith and I used to have five cigarettes to last us all week. So he would have a drag and then give it to me and I would have a drag, and I’d not eat much at dinner because we couldn’t afford it. Sharing cigarettes, just holding one another and loving one another. That was when I had everything.

 

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Andrew “Jack” Whittaker Jr. was a millionaire before he even won the lottery, having built his wealth through hard work. Then, one Christmas Day, he won the lottery. Two years later, the Washington Post published this profile: “He Won Powerball’s $314 Million Jackpot. It Ruined His Life.”

When he died in June, his AP obituary recounted the misery that followed:

[H]e quickly fell victim to scandals, lawsuits and personal setbacks as he endured constant requests for money, leaving him unable to trust others. Several times, he was quoted as saying he wished he had torn up the ticket.

His wife left him. A friend of his drug-addicted granddaughter was found dead at his home in 2004. Three months later, his 17-year-old granddaughter was gone, too. His daughter, Ginger Whittaker Bragg, died in 2009 at age 42 after struggling for years with cancer. And in 2016, he lost a Virginia home to a fire.

 

It is a truism that money can’t buy happiness. There’s also a popular conception that winning the lottery doesn’t increase happiness. That’s debatable, however: this recent analysis of lottery winners finds “having more money makes people less stressed and more satisfied with their life.”

Still, as Aesop concluded in  The Tortoise and the Eagle: “If men had all they wished, they would be often ruined.”

 

Empire Builders

 

“She believed that a shoe told you more about a person or culture than any other object.”

 

In 1946, Sonja Bata married the heir to a Czech shoe manufacturer. Fifty years later, their company was selling a million shoes daily all over the world.

As her Financial Times obituary explains, this growth came from dissatisfaction: “Not content to be just the boss’s wife… she studied every aspect of the business.”

From their postwar headquarters in Ontario, Ms. Bata rebuilt – and then expanded – the brand:

Over time, she took over responsibility for product development and marketing, while her husband managed operations and personnel. She proved a talented trend spotter. Anticipating a switch in style from square to pointed-toe shoes in the postwar years, she convinced the company to re-tool its production ahead of rivals. Later, she led efforts to standardise Bata stores around the world, well before other retailers did so, designing a standard store that could be shipped in modules and assembled anywhere in the world.

Her devotion to shoes extended beyond their production and sale; she was an avid collector, and founded the Bata Shoe Museum to display footwear from the past 4,500 years.

 

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Wooden lasts for the shoes of Ava Gardner and Audrey Hepburn, Museo Salvatore Ferragamo, Florence, Italy. (Photo credit: Esther, Flickr)

Under Mrs. Ferragamo’s leadership, first as president and later as head of the board of directors, the firm grew from producing 6,500 pairs of shoes a year to more than 10,000 pairs a day.

 

Wanda Ferragamo also married before she was 20 years old. Her husband, a cobbler, had found success in America making shoes, but wanted more. According to her Washington Post obituary, “his goal was to move beyond shoes and make the family business a full-fledged fashion house.”

His wife set to work:

One of the first things she did was to introduce handbags to match the shoes… Other items soon followed, including scarves, men’s shoes, jewelry, eyeglasses and ready-to-wear clothes. Boutiques bearing the Ferragamo name opened in New York, Hong Kong, Seoul and other cities.

And although she ran a family business, Ms. Ferragamo was no pushover:

One of the rules she established was that each child would receive the same salary. Another was that no in-laws were allowed to work for the company.

 

The Twin

“Jack and Oskar clearly have the greatest differences in background I have ever seen among identical twins reared apart.”

– Thomas J. Bouchard Jr, Director, Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart

 

Jack Yufe and his identical twin brother, Oskar Stöhr, were separated shortly after birth. Years later, when they finally met, they saw that they shared various habits:

Both flushed the toilet before and after using it. Both read the endings of books first. Both wrapped tape around pens and pencils to get a better grip. Both spoke at precisely the same rate, despite their different languages.

The twins became the subject of academic study,  as well as a documentary film. The differing circumstances of their upbringings – Jack was raised Jewish, and his brother Catholic – had a darker aspect.

During the Second World War, Jack joined a British naval cadet program. His brother, living in Germany, joined the Hitler Youth. According to Jack’s New York Times obituary,

Jack and Oskar both later said that during the war they had been haunted by the idea that they might one day meet on the battlefield, with one killing the other.

More happily – if only for the twins – both took pleasure in shocking others by sneezing loudly.

 

The Archivist

“Until the mid-1990s, almost every media organisation – from the smallest local newspaper to national TV stations – maintained a cuttings collection. These libraries consisted of scrappy folders full of articles, arranged in a bewildering classification system. Only the librarian knew how it worked.”

The Guardian

 

Edda Tasiemka ran a cuttings library out of her own house. It was considered by many, as her obituary in The Telegraph states, “the best cuttings library in Britain.”

Collecting press cuttings began as a hobby for Ms. Tasiemka. Her other pursuits included

Meissen china, Georgian salt cellars, knife rests, Staffordshire figurines of Queen Victoria’s children, Louis Wain cat paintings, Victorian fairings and Regency tea sets with Adam Buck mother-and-child decorations.

She was born in Germany, and dreamed of becoming a civil engineer, but her refusal to join the Hitler Youth impeded her education.

She had a lifelong fear of dogs, dating back to her childhood memories of being taunted and threatened by German shepherds which the Nazis used to let loose in her home, but in later life, to the irritation of some her her neighbours, she befriended the neighbourhood fox, whose typical menu would included chicken and beef.

Known as “the human Google,” Ms. Tasiemka kept the cuttings

largely hidden away in beautiful antique chests and cupboards – nothing so vulgar as a filing cabinet was allowed to intrude, though even her kitchen, bathroom, and garage were stuffed with cuttings. Those on international football, one of the few subjects which held little interest for her, were stored in the first-floor lavatory.